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The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judaea following the Jewish uprising of Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,, people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Accompanied by Vespasian and Domitian, he rode into the city, enthusiastically saluted by the Roman populace, and preceded by a lavish parade containing treasures and captives from the war.

Josephus describes a procession with large amounts of gold and silver carried along the route, followed by elaborate re-enactments of the war, Jewish prisoners, and finally the treasures taken from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Torah. Leaders of the resistance were executed in the Forum, after which the procession closed with religious sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter. The triumphal Arch of Titus, which stands at one entrance to the Forum, memorializes the victory of Titus. The city was besieged and destroyed by Titus in 70 CE.

In 82, Agricola crossed an unidentified body of water and defeated peoples unknown to the Romans until then. He fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalled that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and a few auxiliaries. He had given refuge to an exiled Irish king whom he hoped he might use as the excuse for conquest. This conquest never happened, but some historians believe that the crossing referred to was in fact a small-scale exploratory or punitive expedition to Ireland.

The following year, Agricola raised a fleet and pushed beyond the Forth into Caledonia. To aid the advance, an expansive legionary fortress was constructed at Inchtuthil. Although the Romans inflicted heavy losses on the Calidonians, two-thirds of their army managed to escape and hide in the Scottish marshes and Highlands, ultimately preventing Agricola from bringing the entire British island under his control.

Ancient Roman development of the familiar sports arena

His most significant military contribution was the development of the Limes Germanicus, which encompassed a vast network of roads, forts, and watchtowers constructed along the Rhine river to defend the Empire from the unsubdued Germanic tribes. Nevertheless, several important wars were fought in Gaul, against the Chatti, and across the Danube frontier against the Suebi, the Sarmatians, and the Dacians.

Led by King Decebalus, the Dacians invaded the province of Moesia around 84 or 85, wreaking considerable havoc and killing the Moesian governor Oppius Sabinus. Domitian immediately launched a counteroffensive, which resulted in the destruction of a legion during an ill-fated expedition into Dacia. Their commander, Cornelius Fuscus, was killed, and the battle standard of the Praetorian Guard lost.

In 87, the Romans invaded Dacia once more, this time under command of Tettius Julianus, and finally managed to defeat Decebalus late in 88, at the same site where Fuscus had previously been killed.

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This forced Domitian to sign a peace treaty with Decebalus that was severely criticized by contemporary authors. It was not until the reign of Trajan, in , that a decisive victory against Decebalus was procured. Again, the Roman army sustained heavy losses, but Trajan succeeded in capturing Sarmizegetusa and, importantly, annexed the gold and silver mines of Dacia. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE was one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history, with several Roman settlements obliterated and buried, and thereby preserved, under ash.

Although his administration was marked by a relative absence of major military or political conflicts, Titus faced a number of major disasters during his brief reign.

Flavian Dynasty

On August 24, 79 CE, barely two months after his accession, Mount Vesuvius erupted, resulting in the almost complete destruction of life and property in the cities and resort communities around the Bay of Naples. The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried under meters of stone and lava, killing thousands of citizens. Titus appointed two ex-consuls to organize and coordinate the relief effort, while personally donating large amounts of money from the imperial treasury to aid the victims of the volcano. Additionally, he visited Pompeii once after the eruption and again the following year.

The city was lost for nearly 1, years before its accidental rediscovery in Since then, its excavation has provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city at the height of the Roman Empire, frozen at the moment it was buried on August 24, The Forum, the baths, many houses, and some out-of-town villas, like the Villa of the Mysteries, remain surprisingly well preserved. On-going excavations reveal new insights into the Roman history and culture.

Reconstructions of the eruption and its effects vary considerably in the details but have the same overall features. The eruption lasted for two days. The morning of the first day, August 24, was perceived as normal by the only eyewitness to leave a surviving document, Pliny the Younger, who at that point was staying at Misenum, on the other side of the Bay of Naples, about 19 miles from the volcano, which may have prevented him from noticing the early signs of the eruption.

He was not to have any opportunity, during the next two days, to talk to people who had witnessed the eruption from Pompeii or Herculaneum indeed he never mentions Pompeii in his letter , so he would not have noticed early, smaller fissures and releases of ash and smoke on the mountain, if such had occurred earlier in the morning. Around p. Rescues and escapes occurred during this time. At some time in the night or early the next day, August 25, pyroclastic flows in the close vicinity of the volcano began.

Lights seen on the mountain were interpreted as fires. People as far away as Misenum fled for their lives. The flows were rapid-moving, dense, and very hot, knocking down wholly or partly all structures in their path, incinerating or suffocating all population remaining there and altering the landscape, including the coastline.

These were accompanied by additional light tremors and a mild tsunami in the Bay of Naples. By evening of the second day the eruption was over, leaving only haze in the atmosphere, through which the sun shone weakly. Broad sheets of flame were lighting up many parts of Vesuvius; their light and brightness were the more vivid for the darkness of the night… it was daylight now elsewhere in the world, but there the darkness was darker and thicker than any night.

In Pompeii, the eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash. Evidence for the destruction originally came from a surviving letter by Pliny the Younger, who saw the eruption from a distance and described the death of his uncle, Pliny the Elder, an admiral of the Roman fleet, who tried to rescue citizens.

The site was lost for about 1, years until its initial rediscovery in , and broader rediscovery almost years later by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and moisture. These artifacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies.

This allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died.

What Dynasties Preceded the Flavian Dynasty?

By , around 1, casts made from impressions of bodies in the ash deposits had been recovered in and around Pompeii, with the scattered bones of another The remains of about bodies have been found at Herculaneum in arched vaults discovered in The percentage these numbers represent of the total dead, or the percentage of the dead to the total number at risk, remain completely unknown.

Thirty-eight percent of the 1, were found in the ash fall deposits, the majority inside buildings. These are thought to have been killed mainly by roof collapses, with the smaller number of victims found outside buildings probably killed by falling roof slates, or by larger rocks thrown out by the volcano.

It was initially believed that due to the state of the bodies found at Pompeii, and the outline of clothes on the bodies, it was unlikely that high temperatures were a significant cause. Under the Flavian Dynasty, a massive building program was undertaken, leaving multiple enduring landmarks in the city of Rome, the most spectacular of which was the Flavian Amphitheater, better known as the Colosseum.

The Flavian Dynasty is perhaps best known for its vast construction program on the city of Rome, intended to restore the capital from the damage it had suffered during the Great Fire of 64, and the civil war of Vespasian added the temple of Peace and the temple to the deified Claudius. Construction of the Flavian Amphitheater, presently better known as the Colosseum probably after the nearby statue , was begun in 70 CE under Vespasian, and finally completed in 80 under Titus. In addition to providing spectacular entertainments to the Roman populace, the building was also conceived as a gigantic triumphal monument to commemorate the military achievements of the Flavians during the Jewish wars.

Christianity before the Flavians?

Construction of this building was hastily finished to coincide with the completion of the Flavian Amphitheater. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign. The reign of Titus was struck by multiple natural disasters, the most severe of which was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in The surrounding cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were completely buried under ash and lava.

One year later, Rome was struck by fire and a plague.

On the military front, the Flavian dynasty witnessed the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70, following the failed Jewish rebellion of Substantial conquests were made in Britain under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola between 77 and 83, while Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against King Decebalus in the war against the Dacians. In addition, the Empire strengthened its border defenses by expanding the fortifications along the Limes Germanicus.

The numerical value of Flavian dynasty in Chaldean Numerology is: 8. The numerical value of Flavian dynasty in Pythagorean Numerology is: 2. Word in Definition. Therefore, a massive propaganda campaign was initiated to justify Flavian rule as having been predetermined through divine providence. Nearly one-third of all coins minted in Rome under Vespasian celebrated military victory or peace, [97] while the word vindex was removed from coins as to not remind the public of rebellious Vindex.

Construction projects bore inscriptions praising Vespasian and condemning previous emperors, [98] and a Temple of Peace was constructed in the forum. The Flavians also controlled public opinion through literature. Vespasian approved histories written under his reign, assuring biases against him were removed, [99] while also giving financial rewards to contemporary writers.

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A number of Stoic philosophers were accused of corrupting students with inappropriate teachings and were expelled from Rome. Titus and Domitian also revived the practice of the imperial cult , which had fallen somewhat out of use under Vespasian. Significantly, Domitian's first act as Emperor was the deification of his brother Titus.

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Upon their deaths, his infant son, and niece Julia Flavia , were likewise enrolled among the gods. To foster the worship of the imperial family, Domitian erected a dynastic mausoleum on the site of Vespasian's former house on the Quirinal , [] and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus , a shrine dedicated to the worship of his deified father and brother.

In order to further justify the divine nature of Flavian rule, Domitian also emphasized connections with the chief deity Jupiter , [] most significantly through the impressive restoration of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill. The Flavian dynasty is perhaps best known for its vast construction programme in the city of Rome, intended to restore the capital from the damage it had suffered during the Great Fire of 64, and the civil war of Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, presently better known as the Colosseum probably after the nearby statue , was begun in 70 under Vespasian and finally completed in 80 under Titus.

The bulk of the Flavian construction projects were carried out during the reign of Domitian, who spent lavishly to restore and embellish the city of Rome. Much more than a renovation project, however, Domitian's building programme was intended to be the crowning achievement of an Empire-wide cultural renaissance. Around fifty structures were erected, restored or completed, a number second only to the amount erected under Augustus. Among those he completed were the Temple of Vespasian and Titus , the Arch of Titus , and the Colosseum, to which he added a fourth level and finished the interior seating area.

Both Titus and Domitian were fond of gladiatorial games, and realised its importance to appease the citizens of Rome. In the newly constructed Colosseum, the Flavians provided for spectacular entertainments. The Inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre lasted for a hundred days and were said to be extremely elaborate, including gladiatorial combat , fights between wild animals elephants and cranes , mock naval battles for which the theatre was flooded, horse races and chariot races.